Foot & Ankle

Common Conditions

Hammer Toes

Hammer toe deformities occur when the second, third or fourth toe is bent at the middle joint resembling a hammer. Pain typically occurs from pressure of the toe pushing up against a shoe, or under the ball of the foot due to increased pressure. If the joint at the tip of the toe is bent it is call a mallet toe. Mallet toes are similar to hammertoes with respect to pain on top of the foot, but rarely cause pain in the ball of the foot. Hammer toes are most often caused by shoes that don’t fit properly, a muscle imbalance, or a combination. Shoes that are narrow at the ball of the foot push the smaller toes into a bent position. Read More


Metatarsalgia

Metatarsalgia is defined as pain in the ball of the foot. There are several conditions which can cause pain in the ball of the foot. They include inflammation of the joint (metatarsophalangeal joint- MTP), instability of the MTP joint, toe deformities, Morton’s neuromas, and boney deformities creating pressure and calluses. Often increased pressure is caused by an abnormally long second, third and/or forth metatarsal bone. Normally the big toe and first metatarsal carry the majority of the weight of the body when walking, but if the other metatarsal are longer they have increased pressure  Read More


Morton’s Neuroma

A Morton’s neuroma occurs when the sensory nerves of the ball of the foot are pinched and inflamed. Morton’s neuroma can occur between the second and third toe, or the third and forth toe. The most common symptom of a Morton’s neuroma is pain in the ball of the foot, often extending into the toes, to the top or onto the bottom of the foot. Read More


Plantar Fasciitis

The plantar fascia is an inelastic fibrous tissue layer extending from the heel bone to the ball of the foot (metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints). The plantar fascia functions to elevate the arch during walking and is the most significant stabilizer of the arch. Typically repetitive injury (strain) to the attachment of the plantar fascia to heel bone causes small painful tears to develop. This causes inflammation and pain at the base of the heel. Read More


Common Procedures

 

Ankle Fusion

Ankle fusion makes the tibia or shin-bone grow together with the talus, the bone immediately under it. This stiffens the ankle. You lose much if the up and down motion of the back of your foot, but you still have some from the other joints around the ankle. In addition, you will still have the side-to-side rocking motion that comes from the joint below the ankle. Ankle fusion is about 95% successful in getting the ankle bones to grow together. Once healed, the fusion is very durable and you can even do heavy labor with the foot. Most patients walk without a limp and get excellent relief of pain. Read More


Hallux Valgus (Bunion) Surgery

The bunion, also called a “hallux valgus” deformity, occurs when the big toe begins pointing toward the outside of the foot. This makes the joint at the bottom of the big toe stick out, and sometimes some extra bone also forms in this area to make a bump. In most adults, bunions come from a lifetime of wearing tight shoes, but we don’t know why some people seem more likely to get them than others. We also don’t know why some people that have bunions have a lot of pain and others do not. Read More


Hindfoot Fusions

We recommend fusing (stiffening) of the joints in the back of your foot for two basic reasons: 1. You have pain in those joints from arthritis or other problems. This is often from an old injury, joint diseases like rheumatoid arthritis or from a growth defect where the bones do not completely separate as they are made. Arthritis can also occur in this area without a known cause. 2. The back of your foot is not in the right alignment to both put the ball of the foot flat on the floor and keep the heel straight at the same time. Sometimes making the joints in the back of the foot stiff is the only way to straighten the foot out and hold it there. Read More


Midfoot Fusions

The middle part of your foot (called the “midfoot”) is made up of small bones. On the inside of your foot there are two rows of bones; the first called “navicular”. Just past this are bones called the “cuneiforms”. On the outside of the foot a single larger bone called the “cuboid” crosses the whole midfoot. Arthritis of the midfoot means the smooth surface that covers the end of the bones (the cartilage) has been lost and there are usually bone spurs around the joints. Read More


Posterior Tibial Tendon Reconstruction

The posterior tibial tendon is a large tendon which runs just behind the large bone on the inside of the ankle (called the “medial malleolus”). The tendon helps support the arch of the foot and helps you to rise up on your tip-toes, therefore it has to withstand a lot of stress over your lifetime. The tendon can tear or scar down as you get older or may be injured by a sudden twisting injury of the foot. You may notice pain or swelling over the tendon and your arch may fall (your foot may get flat). Read More


Rheumatoid Forefoot Repair

Rheumatoid arthritis causes your joints to become swollen and inflamed. Different people have different groups of joints that are involved. Sometimes, the small joints at the base of the toes are attacked by the disease, and after many years the bones can be partly eaten away and the ligaments that hold the toes straight are stretched. When this happens, your toes can stick up, curl and bend to either side. The fat that normally cushions the ball of your foot gets pulled out of the way with the toes. This leaves nothing but skin between the bones that firm the ball of the foot and floor, and you can get very painful callouses. Read More

  • Achilles Tendon Injuries
  • Adult Acquired Flatfoot
  • Ankle Sprains
  • Arthritis of Foot & Ankle
  • Bunion
  • Bunionette Deformity (Tailor’s Bunion)
  • Claw Toe
  • Deformities of Foot & Ankle
  • Diabetic Foot
  • Fractures of Foot & Ankle
  • Haglund’s Deformity (Retrocalcaneal Bursitis)
  • Hallux Rigidus (Stiff Big Toe)
  • Hammer Toe
  • Injuries of Foot & Ankle
  • Morton’s Neuroma
  • Plantar Fasciitis
  • Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction (PTTD)
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis of the Foot and Ankle
  • Sesamoiditis
  • Sprains of Foot & Ankle
  • Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome (Posterior Tibial Neuralgia)
  • Tendon Injuries/Inflammation of Foot & Ankle
  • Absorbable Antibiotic Bead Treatment for Osteomyelitis
  • Achilles Tendon Lengthening
  • Ankle Fracture Surgery
  • Ankle Fusion, Trans􀃒bular
  • Arthroscopy of the Ankle
  • Bunionectomy With Wedge Osteotomy
  • Bunionette Deformity Correction (Distal Fifth Metatarsal Osteotomy)
  • Bunionette Deformity Correction (Overview)
  • Calcaneal Fracture Fixation (Open Reduction and Internal Fixation)
  • Cartilage Repair, Arthroscopically-Assisted Technique (Zimmer® DeNovo® NT Natural Tissue Graft)
  • Charcot Foot Treatment Options
  • Cheilectomy
  • Cotton Osteotomy (Medial Cuneiform Opening Wedge Osteotomy)
  • Debridement of the Achilles Tendon
  • DuVries Arthroplasty
  • Endoscopic Plantar Fasciotomy (EPF)
  • Excision of Mortons Neuromas
  • Excision of Soft Tissue Masses
  • First Metatarsal-phalangeal Joint (MTP) Arthrodesis
  • First MTP Joint Fusion (Locking Plate)
  • Fixation for LisFranc Injury
  • Gastrocnemius Recession (Intramuscular Approach)
  • Haglund’s Deformity Surgery (Resection Method)
  • Hammertoe Correction (PIP Joint Arthroplasty)
  • Jones Fracture Fixation (Open Reduction and Internal Fixation)
  • Jones Fracture Fixation (Intramedullary Screw)
  • Kidner Procedure
  • Lateral Ankle Ligament Reconstruction
  • Lapidus Procedure for Bunion Correction
  • Lateral Column Lengthening (Evans Osteotomy) for Adult Acquired Flatfoot
  • Mallet Toe Correction (DIP Joint Arthroplasty)
  • Medial Calcaneal Sliding Osteotomy
  • Metatarsal Fracture Fixation (Open Reduction and Internal Fixation)
  • Midfoot Fusion
  • Plantar Fascia Release (Open Technique)
  • Subtalar Fusion
  • Tarsal Tunnel Decompression
  • Tendon Transfer for Hammertoe (FDL tendon transfer)
  • Tibiotalocalcaneal Fusion (with Intramedullary Rod)
  • TightRope™ Fixation for Ankle Syndesmosis
  • Triple Arthrodesis
  • Weil Osteotomy for Claw Toe

Pre-Op Instructions

If you are having Foot & Ankle surgery please review these important pre-op instructions. Read More

Discharge Instructions

It is extremely important to make sure you follow all discharge instructions after your surgery for the best possible outcome. Please review the Foot & Ankle Discharge Instructions. Read More

What to Expect After Foot & Ankle Surgery

Your surgeon will let you know if you will be able to put weight (weight bearing) or if you will not be able to put any weight (non-weight bearing) on the foot or ankle you had surgery on. For the best outcome, please make sure you following these instructions.

Weight Bearing Read More

Non-Weight Bearing Read More

Patient Education

Common Conditions

Hammer Toes

Hammer toe deformities occur when the second, third or fourth toe is bent at the middle joint resembling a hammer. Pain typically occurs from pressure of the toe pushing up against a shoe, or under the ball of the foot due to increased pressure. If the joint at the tip of the toe is bent it is call a mallet toe. Mallet toes are similar to hammertoes with respect to pain on top of the foot, but rarely cause pain in the ball of the foot. Hammer toes are most often caused by shoes that don’t fit properly, a muscle imbalance, or a combination. Shoes that are narrow at the ball of the foot push the smaller toes into a bent position. Read More


Metatarsalgia

Metatarsalgia is defined as pain in the ball of the foot. There are several conditions which can cause pain in the ball of the foot. They include inflammation of the joint (metatarsophalangeal joint- MTP), instability of the MTP joint, toe deformities, Morton’s neuromas, and boney deformities creating pressure and calluses. Often increased pressure is caused by an abnormally long second, third and/or forth metatarsal bone. Normally the big toe and first metatarsal carry the majority of the weight of the body when walking, but if the other metatarsal are longer they have increased pressure  Read More


Morton’s Neuroma

A Morton’s neuroma occurs when the sensory nerves of the ball of the foot are pinched and inflamed. Morton’s neuroma can occur between the second and third toe, or the third and forth toe. The most common symptom of a Morton’s neuroma is pain in the ball of the foot, often extending into the toes, to the top or onto the bottom of the foot. Read More


Plantar Fasciitis

The plantar fascia is an inelastic fibrous tissue layer extending from the heel bone to the ball of the foot (metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints). The plantar fascia functions to elevate the arch during walking and is the most significant stabilizer of the arch. Typically repetitive injury (strain) to the attachment of the plantar fascia to heel bone causes small painful tears to develop. This causes inflammation and pain at the base of the heel. Read More


Common Procedures

 

Ankle Fusion

Ankle fusion makes the tibia or shin-bone grow together with the talus, the bone immediately under it. This stiffens the ankle. You lose much if the up and down motion of the back of your foot, but you still have some from the other joints around the ankle. In addition, you will still have the side-to-side rocking motion that comes from the joint below the ankle. Ankle fusion is about 95% successful in getting the ankle bones to grow together. Once healed, the fusion is very durable and you can even do heavy labor with the foot. Most patients walk without a limp and get excellent relief of pain. Read More


Hallux Valgus (Bunion) Surgery

The bunion, also called a “hallux valgus” deformity, occurs when the big toe begins pointing toward the outside of the foot. This makes the joint at the bottom of the big toe stick out, and sometimes some extra bone also forms in this area to make a bump. In most adults, bunions come from a lifetime of wearing tight shoes, but we don’t know why some people seem more likely to get them than others. We also don’t know why some people that have bunions have a lot of pain and others do not. Read More


Hindfoot Fusions

We recommend fusing (stiffening) of the joints in the back of your foot for two basic reasons: 1. You have pain in those joints from arthritis or other problems. This is often from an old injury, joint diseases like rheumatoid arthritis or from a growth defect where the bones do not completely separate as they are made. Arthritis can also occur in this area without a known cause. 2. The back of your foot is not in the right alignment to both put the ball of the foot flat on the floor and keep the heel straight at the same time. Sometimes making the joints in the back of the foot stiff is the only way to straighten the foot out and hold it there. Read More


Midfoot Fusions

The middle part of your foot (called the “midfoot”) is made up of small bones. On the inside of your foot there are two rows of bones; the first called “navicular”. Just past this are bones called the “cuneiforms”. On the outside of the foot a single larger bone called the “cuboid” crosses the whole midfoot. Arthritis of the midfoot means the smooth surface that covers the end of the bones (the cartilage) has been lost and there are usually bone spurs around the joints. Read More


Posterior Tibial Tendon Reconstruction

The posterior tibial tendon is a large tendon which runs just behind the large bone on the inside of the ankle (called the “medial malleolus”). The tendon helps support the arch of the foot and helps you to rise up on your tip-toes, therefore it has to withstand a lot of stress over your lifetime. The tendon can tear or scar down as you get older or may be injured by a sudden twisting injury of the foot. You may notice pain or swelling over the tendon and your arch may fall (your foot may get flat). Read More


Rheumatoid Forefoot Repair

Rheumatoid arthritis causes your joints to become swollen and inflamed. Different people have different groups of joints that are involved. Sometimes, the small joints at the base of the toes are attacked by the disease, and after many years the bones can be partly eaten away and the ligaments that hold the toes straight are stretched. When this happens, your toes can stick up, curl and bend to either side. The fat that normally cushions the ball of your foot gets pulled out of the way with the toes. This leaves nothing but skin between the bones that firm the ball of the foot and floor, and you can get very painful callouses. Read More

  • Achilles Tendon Injuries
  • Adult Acquired Flatfoot
  • Ankle Sprains
  • Arthritis of Foot & Ankle
  • Bunion
  • Bunionette Deformity (Tailor’s Bunion)
  • Claw Toe
  • Deformities of Foot & Ankle
  • Diabetic Foot
  • Fractures of Foot & Ankle
  • Haglund’s Deformity (Retrocalcaneal Bursitis)
  • Hallux Rigidus (Stiff Big Toe)
  • Hammer Toe
  • Injuries of Foot & Ankle
  • Morton’s Neuroma
  • Plantar Fasciitis
  • Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction (PTTD)
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis of the Foot and Ankle
  • Sesamoiditis
  • Sprains of Foot & Ankle
  • Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome (Posterior Tibial Neuralgia)
  • Tendon Injuries/Inflammation of Foot & Ankle
  • Absorbable Antibiotic Bead Treatment for Osteomyelitis
  • Achilles Tendon Lengthening
  • Ankle Fracture Surgery
  • Ankle Fusion, Trans􀃒bular
  • Arthroscopy of the Ankle
  • Bunionectomy With Wedge Osteotomy
  • Bunionette Deformity Correction (Distal Fifth Metatarsal Osteotomy)
  • Bunionette Deformity Correction (Overview)
  • Calcaneal Fracture Fixation (Open Reduction and Internal Fixation)
  • Cartilage Repair, Arthroscopically-Assisted Technique (Zimmer® DeNovo® NT Natural Tissue Graft)
  • Charcot Foot Treatment Options
  • Cheilectomy
  • Cotton Osteotomy (Medial Cuneiform Opening Wedge Osteotomy)
  • Debridement of the Achilles Tendon
  • DuVries Arthroplasty
  • Endoscopic Plantar Fasciotomy (EPF)
  • Excision of Mortons Neuromas
  • Excision of Soft Tissue Masses
  • First Metatarsal-phalangeal Joint (MTP) Arthrodesis
  • First MTP Joint Fusion (Locking Plate)
  • Fixation for LisFranc Injury
  • Gastrocnemius Recession (Intramuscular Approach)
  • Haglund’s Deformity Surgery (Resection Method)
  • Hammertoe Correction (PIP Joint Arthroplasty)
  • Jones Fracture Fixation (Open Reduction and Internal Fixation)
  • Jones Fracture Fixation (Intramedullary Screw)
  • Kidner Procedure
  • Lateral Ankle Ligament Reconstruction
  • Lapidus Procedure for Bunion Correction
  • Lateral Column Lengthening (Evans Osteotomy) for Adult Acquired Flatfoot
  • Mallet Toe Correction (DIP Joint Arthroplasty)
  • Medial Calcaneal Sliding Osteotomy
  • Metatarsal Fracture Fixation (Open Reduction and Internal Fixation)
  • Midfoot Fusion
  • Plantar Fascia Release (Open Technique)
  • Subtalar Fusion
  • Tarsal Tunnel Decompression
  • Tendon Transfer for Hammertoe (FDL tendon transfer)
  • Tibiotalocalcaneal Fusion (with Intramedullary Rod)
  • TightRope™ Fixation for Ankle Syndesmosis
  • Triple Arthrodesis
  • Weil Osteotomy for Claw Toe

Pre-Op Instructions

If you are having Foot & Ankle surgery please review these important pre-op instructions. Read More

Discharge Instructions

It is extremely important to make sure you follow all discharge instructions after your surgery for the best possible outcome. Please review the Foot & Ankle Discharge Instructions. Read More

What to Expect After Foot & Ankle Surgery

Your surgeon will let you know if you will be able to put weight (weight bearing) or if you will not be able to put any weight (non-weight bearing) on the foot or ankle you had surgery on. For the best outcome, please make sure you following these instructions.

Weight Bearing Read More

Non-Weight Bearing Read More

To see a Surgeon, Doctor, or Provider’s location, please view their profile or select from a Location below.

To see a Surgeon, Doctor, or Provider’s location, please view their profile or select from a Location below.

Providers

To see a Surgeon, Doctor, or Provider’s location, please view their profile or select from a Location below.

Filter:

Juha Jaakkola, MD

Foot & Ankle

Jeffrey Goldberg, MD

Foot & Ankle

Christopher Nicholson, MD

Foot & Ankle

Bill Phillips, PA-C

Foot & Ankle

Locations

Videos